What Is Bipolar Disorder ? Diagnosis, Types & Medication

bipolar disorder

A mental illness called bipolar disorder can lead to severe mood swings, ranging from mania to depression. It was formerly known as manic-depressive illness. Manic depression patients go through phases of extreme energy, euphoria, and productivity (mania or hypomania) interspersed with depressive, hopeless, and low-energy periods (depression). A person’s life, relationships, and career may be severely disrupted by these extreme mood swings.

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

The symptoms of bipolar-disorder can vary from person to person, but some of the most common include:

Mania or hypomania:

– Enhanced vitality and movement

– Fast-paced speech and thoughts

– Exaggerated self-worth or haughtiness

– Reduction in the demand for sleep

– Impulsive actions: reckless sexual behavior, spending sprees, etc.

– Having trouble focusing

Depression:

– Persistent sadness or emptiness

– Loss of interest or pleasure in activities

– Changes in appetite or sleep

– Feelings of worthlessness or guilt

– Thoughts of death or suicide

What are the types of bipolar disorder?

bipolar disorder

There are four types of bipolar-disorder, including:

Bipolar I Disorder

Individuals suffering from bipolar I disorder have gone through one or more manic episodes. The majority of individuals with bipolar I will experience both manic and depressive episodes, though a depressive episode is not required for a diagnosis. Typically, depressive episodes persist for a minimum of two weeks. Your manic episodes must be severe enough to require hospitalization or last for at least seven days in order for you to be diagnosed with bipolar I. Bipolar I individuals may also go through mixed states, which are periods of both manic and depressive symptoms.

Bipolar II Disorder

Although this type always experiences depressive episodes with sporadic hypomania, it can resemble bipolar I. Bipolar II is a distinct diagnosis, not a milder variation of bipolar I disorder. However, some individuals with bipolar II eventually develop bipolar I.

Cyclothymic Disorder

Another name for this rare form of bipolar-disorder’s is cyclothymia. Generally speaking, it experiences less severe highs and lows than bipolar I and bipolar II. But it can have an equally big effect on your life. You might experience brief bouts of depression and shorter bursts of hypomanic symptoms. Bipolar 1 or bipolar 2 can emerge from cyclothymic disorder.

Other specified and unspecified bipolar and related disorders:

A person is diagnosed with other specified or unspecified bipolar disorder’s, if they do not fit the diagnostic criteria for bipolar I, II, or cyclothymia but have nevertheless had episodes of clinically significant abnormal mood elevation.

Causes of Bipolar Disorder

Although the precise cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, environmental and genetic factors are thought to play a role. An increased risk of developing bipolar disorder’s exists in those with a family history of the illness. A bipolar episode can also be brought on by stressful life events like losing one’s job or a loved one passing away.

Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder

It is crucial that you get professional assistance if you believe that you or someone you know may have bipolar-disorder. Based on a clinical evaluation that may include a physical examination, psychological testing, and a review of your medical history, a mental health professional can make a diagnosis of bipolar disorder.

Treatment of Bipolar Disorder

bipolar disorder

Although there is no known cure for bipolar disorder’s, the symptoms can be effectively managed with certain treatments. Bipolar disorder’s usually treated with medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle modifications.

Medication:

Medications that help stabilize mood and stop manic or depressive episodes include antidepressants and mood stabilizers.

Psychotherapy:

People with bipolar disorders can benefit from psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, which teaches them effective coping strategies.

Lifestyle changes:

Keeping up a healthy lifestyle, which includes eating a balanced diet, exercising frequently, and getting enough sleep, can help to elevate mood and reduce mood swings.

Conclusion

An extremely dangerous mental illness is bipolar disorder. Along with other symptoms, it involves mood, energy, and attention changes. Although treatment can significantly improve a person’s outlook and well-being, it can seriously disrupt a person’s life.

While working closely with a healthcare provider can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life, treatment may not completely eliminate mood swings.

FAQ

Q1. What Are Bipolar Disorder’s Causes?

Answer : Bipolar disorder’s has no single cause. Researchers are looking into the possible causes of it in certain individuals.

For instance, there are situations when it’s just a genetic issue—that is, you have it because it runs in your family. Scientists are unsure of the precise mechanism or reason behind this, but brain development may also be important. 

Q2. What age is the onset of bipolar disorder?

Answer : The typical onset age of bipolar disorder is 25 years of age. But it can happen during adolescence. Childhood is rarely the time for it to happen.

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